Great Silk Road (the first comprehension was mentioned in 1877 by the German geographer Rihtgophen; by the translation from Uzbek – “Buyuk Ipak Yuly”) – in antiquity it means the way from China to Asian countries, by which passed the merchant caravans.
The Great Silk Road was opened at II B.C. It’s begun in Sian (China’s town) and lengthens to Dunhuan through Lanchjou. In Dunhuan it bifurcates: to the north into Fergana through Turfan city and crossed Pamirs; the south way was form through Takla-Makan desert, past Lobnor lake, trough Yarkend town and Pamirs mountain to Baktria and from there the way was to Middle East, India and Parphia.
Primordial was only one road – North road. It is arise by initial of China’s imperator U-di, when china’s diplomat Chjan Czan came to the fatherland from Central Asian embassy. For reinforcements of its army, imperator needed of the racy horses. Chjan Czan relates to imperator, that he saw these horses in Central Asia and in many countries there are has no silk-weaving handicrafts. It is encourage of imperator to export of the silk from China and exchange for horses abroad. Later the china’s export was branched – it became to export of the vine, sweet yields and others. The first camel caravan into Fergana valley was leave in 121 year B.C. It was load with bronze mirrors and silk. It way was through Turphan cavity along Tien Shan spurs.
At the beginning of new millennium because of permanent forays to the caravans, the North road was desolated and the trade was continuous by the South way.
Great Silk Road provides the great influence for development of the culture and economy of the present days Middle East, Caucasus, China, Middle Asia. The traders and travelers from the different countries are swaps between each others of knowledge and experience. It is incite to developing of religion, art and other spheres in middle centuries.